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业绩不够?卖房凑

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 家居卖场启动“加温模式” 发力冲业绩 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

广州东莞房价涨幅同比降12个百分点

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

位于芬兰赫尔辛基的开发商Remedy Entertainment通过之前的作品《英雄本色》(Max Payne)和《心灵杀手》(Alan Wake)模糊了好莱坞和游戏之间的界限。如今,这家工作室将次世代的图像技术与紧张气氛和电视剧剧本结合了起来。故事设置在Riverport大学城,玩家将控制杰克o乔伊斯和贝斯o怀尔德。这两人原本是普通人,但在一次导致时间裂缝的意外中,他们获得了操纵时间的超能力。在游戏过程中,时间体系会随时崩溃,导致环境中的时间暂停、断续、倒流和冻结。玩家在游戏中会与帝王联盟(Monarch Corporation)展开对抗,喜欢《英雄本色》中子弹时刻的玩家,可以在放大时间因素的枪战中寻找新的战略。除了虚拟的故事情节,游戏还采用了定制的实景真人叙事模式,根据玩家的不同选择将产生不同的后果。
欧洲专利局局长伯努瓦·巴迪斯戴利表示,中国公司专利申请量的增加,反映出中国加速扩张到欧洲、正成为一个知识型的全球创新型国家的事实。
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Care about them, but don't let on mkay?
“如果我们能找到在两个地方都购物的人,那就非常有价值。你知道他们是谁,他们买什么,他们哪些方面花钱,”哈勃补充说。“你可以给他们更加个人化的体验。”
For: Strong reviews, and praise for the performances - particularly from the children at the centre of the story, and Willem Dafoe, who plays the manager of the motel where they live.

5. It's a dog's life for the British
It can transport rows of seedlings in minutes. And can reduce planting time by 88 percent.
Polls indicate that the Dutch election will be extremely tight. Mr Rutte’s centre-right VVD sits atop most polls, just 3 percentage points ahead of the PVV. Most polls show a large percentage of voters remain undecided.
There will not likely be a return to the whiteness of social dominance and exclusive national identity. Immigration cannot be halted without damaging Western nations’ economies; immigrants who have already arrived cannot be expelled en masse without causing social and moral damage. And the other groups who seem to be “cutting in line” are in fact getting a chance at progress that was long denied them.
Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them will be released worldwide on November 18, 2016.

Footnotes

  • 天津170万平米公建节能改造 年内完成全部任务
  • 几家大型对冲基金的资产规模,占据了该行业的大半江山。各家的回报率相差巨大。每个像威廉o阿克曼旗下潘兴广场那样的大赢家,都对应着一个像约翰o保尔森旗下优势基金那样的大输家。投资者选择对冲基金,是冲着其“非相关收益”,意即与大盘走向背道而行的趋势。今年,他们绝对是获得了“逆市”的收益,可惜是在大盘表现出色的情况下“逆市”。

这部13个小时的,关于长毛狗经历的影片花了45年才来到美国的影院,但时机却恰到好处。里维特先生淘气地在巴黎、法国文学与若干永恒的哲学谜题(真实的本质是什么,我们怎么知道我们知道,因与果之间的联系)之间徜徉,它既是一个迷人的,被重新发觉饿出来的艺术品,片长简直疯狂;与此同时,也警示着电影的未来。一切都已经做过了,一切都仍然是可能的。
The joint Sino-American programme delivered by the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and Kellogg School of Management has returned to the top of the Financial Times ranking of the best 100 MBAs for senior executives.
Most of Friends was shot before cellular phones and Google were ubiquitous. The clothes and gadgets seem a bit outdated these days. Despite this, the show’s key elements still hold up remarkably well in the eyes of young viewers.
面试官走进了壁橱,而不是会议室。
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这将是一部非常有趣的电影,刻画出了美国队长与钢铁侠之间微妙的关系, 两人经常陷入信任危机。

这次雷士照明与德豪润达的关联交易是什么?

References

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